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Myristicin Safrole. The position of the missing OCH3 is arrowed. The transformation of safrole to Ecstasy can be shown as: Safrole 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine or MDMA (Ecstasy) Safrole comes from the sassafras tree. Traces can also be found in cocoa, black pepper, mace, nutmeg, and wild ginger. Oil of sassafras, extracted from the root of the tree, is about 85 percent safrole and was once used as the main flavoring agent in root beer. Safrole is now 32 Pe p p e r s , N u t m e g , a n d C l o v e s deemed a carcinogen and, along with oil of sassafras, has been banned as a food additive.

In spite of all their efforts, the Dutch monopoly in the trade in nutmeg and cloves did not last. In 1770 a French diplomat smuggled clove seedlings from the Moluccas to the French colony of Mauritius. From Mauritius they spread all along the East African coast and especially to Zanzibar, where cloves quickly became the major export. Nutmeg, on the other hand, proved notoriously difficult to cultivate outside its original home on the Banda Islands. The tree requires rich, moist, well-drained soil and hot, humid conditions away from the sun and strong winds.

Over 90 percent of his crew didn’t survive Magellan’s 1519–1522 circumnavigation of the world—in large part due to scurvy, a devastating disease caused by a deficiency of the ascorbic acid molecule, dietary vitamin C. Exhaustion and weakness, swelling of the arms and legs, softening of the gums, excessive bruising, hemorrhaging from the nose and mouth, foul breath, diarrhea, muscle pain, loss of teeth, lung and kidney problems—the list of symptoms of scurvy is long and horrible. Death generally results from an acute infection such as pneumonia or some other respiratory ailment or, even in young people, from heart failure.

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