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Additional resources for Automotive Lubricant Testing and Advanced Additive Development (ASTM special technical publication 1501)
Easy removal of bio-no-tox fluids and recycling supports a sustainable development. As displayed by the RENAULT demonstrator ELLYPSE and the FORD Model U, additional requirements may be demanded in the future, such as: ͑a͒ biodegradability and nontoxicity and ͑b͒ a content of renewables, or both. The criteria for attribution of the environmental label “EUROMARGUERITE” requires for hydraulic fluids a content of Ͼ50 % of renewables. A smaller figure was proposed for engine oils ͓5͔. ͒ also have an environmental impact.
The number of pairs exceeding 1 % difference is similar to that seen with the data in Fig. 3. The previous discussion centered on data from SAE 0W-xx and 5W-xx formulations. Figure 7 shows the viscosity temperature relationship for Oil H1, an SAE 10W-30 formulation. The response of this oil is similar to the response seen in the earlier figures to the temperature offset and different power ratios. Temperature Sensitivity Figure 8 shows a plot of indicated test temperature versus cranking viscosity for CLNNR over a narrow temperature range.
The magnitude of the difference is highly dependent on the specifics of the oil formulation and the viscosity grade. This temperature sensitivity can cause a perception of bias when comparing the data obtained from different instruments. This has been shown to be the case even with instruments having essentially identical calibrations. However, with careful operation of the CCS-2100 instrument in a laboratory, it is possible to obtain repeat measurements that are a small fraction of the published repeatability in ASTM D 5293-04 ͓5͔.
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